Kubernetes集群部署步骤

  1. 官方提供的三种部署方式
  2. Kubernetes平台环境规划
  3. 自签SSL证书
  4. Etcd数据库集群部署
  5. Node安装Docker
  6. 部署Kubernetes网络
  7. 部署Master组件
  8. 部署Node组件
  9. 部署一个测试示例
  10. 扩容为高用可负载集群



官方提供的三种部署方式

minikube

Minikube是一个工具,可以在本地快速运行一个单点的Kubernetes,仅用于尝试Kubernetes或日常开发的用户使用。

部署地址:https://kubernetes.io/docs/setup/minikube/


kubeadm

Kubeadm也是一个工具,提供kubeadm init和kubeadm join,用于快速部署Kubernetes集群。

部署地址:https://kubernetes.io/docs/reference/setup-tools/kubeadm/kubeadm/


二进制包

推荐,从官方下载发行版的二进制包,手动部署每个组件,组成Kubernetes集群。

下载地址:https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/releases



Kubernetes平台环境规划


单机Kubernetes平台架构

Jm0HHO.png


高可用Kubernetes平台架构

img


本文章的规划

目前会先构建单机Kubernetes平台架构,后面会将构建好的单机Kubernetes平台架构,扩容为高可用Kubernetes平台架构


单机Kubernetes平台架构

  1. 192.168.0.141--masrer

    1. 4G,2P
  2. 192.168.0.142--nodc01

    1. 4G,2P
  3. 192.168.0.143--nodc02

    1. 4G,2P



自签SSL证书

JuGzuD.png

按着以上的证书需求图上,etcd跟k8s都需要证书

证书就在主master机上生成


创建证书目录

mkdir -p /k8s/cert/{k8s-cert,etcd-cert}
## 分别创建k8s跟etcd的证书目录,分类存储


同步时间

查看当前系统时间,请让系统时间保持正确

ntpdate time.windows.com
##虚拟机的时间总是不定,所以要同步时间

date -s '2019-03-24 13:09:30'
##如果同步出错,直接修改



生成etcd需要的证书


进入etcd证书目录

cd /k8s/cert/etcd-cert


安装cfssl命令

curl -L https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssl_linux-amd64 -o /usr/local/bin/cfssl
curl -L https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssljson_linux-amd64 -o /usr/local/bin/cfssljson
curl -L https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssl-certinfo_linux-amd64 -o /usr/local/bin/cfssl-certinfo
chmod +x /usr/local/bin/cfssl /usr/local/bin/cfssljson /usr/local/bin/cfssl-certinfo


编写生成ca证书的脚本

vim etca-ca.sh

cat > ca-config.json <<EOF
{
  "signing": {
    "default": {
      "expiry": "87600h"
    },
    "profiles": {
      "www": {
         "expiry": "87600h",
         "usages": [
            "signing",
            "key encipherment",
            "server auth",
            "client auth"
        ]
      }
    }
  }
}
EOF

cat > ca-csr.json <<EOF
{
    "CN": "etcd CA",
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "Beijing",
            "ST": "Beijing"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca -

#-----------------------

cat > server-csr.json <<EOF
{
    "CN": "etcd",
    "hosts": [
    "192.168.0.141",
    "192.168.0.142",
    "192.168.0.143"
    ],
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "BeiJing",
            "ST": "BeiJing"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=www server-csr.json | cfssljson -bare server


证书脚本重点注意信息

expiry:表示证书有效时间
hosts:有效的IP,只要是etcd的节点IP都要写进去
key:生成证书的算法
names:地区


使用ca.sh脚本生成ca证书

chmod +x etca-ca.sh
./etca-ca.sh



生成k8s需要的证书


进入k8s证书目录

cd /k8s/cert/k8s-cert/


编写生成证书的脚本

vim k8s.sh

cat > ca-config.json <<EOF
{
  "signing": {
    "default": {
      "expiry": "87600h"
    },
    "profiles": {
      "kubernetes": {
         "expiry": "87600h",
         "usages": [
            "signing",
            "key encipherment",
            "server auth",
            "client auth"
        ]
      }
    }
  }
}
EOF

cat > ca-csr.json <<EOF
{
    "CN": "kubernetes",
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "Beijing",
            "ST": "Beijing",
              "O": "k8s",
            "OU": "System"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca -

#-----------------------

cat > server-csr.json <<EOF
{
    "CN": "kubernetes",
    "hosts": [
      "10.0.0.1",
      "127.0.0.1",
      "192.168.0.141",
      "192.168.0.40",
      "192.168.0.41",
      "192.168.0.42",
      "kubernetes",
      "kubernetes.default",
      "kubernetes.default.svc",
      "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster",
      "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local"
    ],
    "key": {
        "algo": "rsa",
        "size": 2048
    },
    "names": [
        {
            "C": "CN",
            "L": "BeiJing",
            "ST": "BeiJing",
            "O": "k8s",
            "OU": "System"
        }
    ]
}
EOF

cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes server-csr.json | cfssljson -bare server

#-----------------------

cat > admin-csr.json <<EOF
{
  "CN": "admin",
  "hosts": [],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "L": "BeiJing",
      "ST": "BeiJing",
      "O": "system:masters",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes admin-csr.json | cfssljson -bare admin

#-----------------------

cat > kube-proxy-csr.json <<EOF
{
  "CN": "system:kube-proxy",
  "hosts": [],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "L": "BeiJing",
      "ST": "BeiJing",
      "O": "k8s",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}
EOF

cfssl gencert -ca=ca.pem -ca-key=ca-key.pem -config=ca-config.json -profile=kubernetes kube-proxy-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-proxy


证书脚本重点注意信息

expiry:表示证书有效时间
hosts:有效的IP,只要是master的节点IP都要写进去,为了之后的高可用,我就多加了几个IP,还有几个域名跟二个IP都不要删除,默认k8s有时会调用
key:生成证书的算法
names:地区,如果不熟悉最好不要修改names中的地区,因为有标记k8s


使用k8s.sh脚本生成证书

chmod +x k8s.sh
./k8s.sh



Etcd数据库集群部署

etcd 是一个分布式一致性k-v存储系统,可用于服务注册发现与共享配置,具有以下优点。

  1. 简单 : 相比于晦涩难懂的paxos算法,etcd基于相对简单且易实现的raft算法实现一致性,并通过gRPC提供接口调用
  2. 安全:支持TLS通信,并可以针对不同的用户进行对key的读写控制
  3. 高性能:10,000 /秒的写性能


etcd下载

https://github.com/etcd-io/etcd/releases


etcd版本

这边是用etcd3.3.10来部署的


etcd集群节点

  1. 192.168.0.141
  2. 192.168.0.142
  3. 192.168.0.143


etcd主要文件

etcd文件 ##启动etcd的主要程序
etcdctl文件  ##是etcd管理客户端的命令
/var/log/messages   ##日志文件



192.168.0.141机上操作

进入目录并解压并进入

mkdir /k8s/soft
cd /k8s/soft
tar -zxf etcd-v3.3.10-linux-amd64.tar.gz
cd etcd-v3.3.10-linux-amd64


创建目录

mkdir -p /usr/local/etcd/{bin,conf,ssl}
## bin:存放可执行文件
## conf:存放配置文件
## ssl:存放证书文件


复制文件到etcd的bin目录中

cp -a /k8s/soft/etcd-v3.3.10-linux-amd64/etcd* /usr/local/etcd/bin/


复制证书到etcd的ssh目录中

cp -a /k8s/cert/etcd-cert/{ca,server,server-key}.pem /usr/local/etcd/ssl/


编写部署脚本

vim etcd.sh

#!/bin/bash
# example: ./etcd.sh etcd01 192.168.1.10 etcd02=https://192.168.1.11:2380,etcd03=https://192.168.1.12:2380

ETCD_NAME=$1
ETCD_IP=$2
ETCD_CLUSTER=$3

WORK_DIR=/usr/local/etcd

cat <<EOF >$WORK_DIR/conf/etcd
#[Member]
ETCD_NAME="${ETCD_NAME}"
ETCD_DATA_DIR="/var/lib/etcd/default.etcd"
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS="https://${ETCD_IP}:2380"
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS="https://${ETCD_IP}:2379"

#[Clustering]
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS="https://${ETCD_IP}:2380"
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS="https://${ETCD_IP}:2379"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER="etcd01=https://${ETCD_IP}:2380,${ETCD_CLUSTER}"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN="etcd-cluster"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE="new"
EOF

cat <<EOF >/usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service
[Unit]
Description=Etcd Server
After=network.target
After=network-online.target
Wants=network-online.target

[Service]
Type=notify
EnvironmentFile=${WORK_DIR}/conf/etcd
ExecStart=${WORK_DIR}/bin/etcd \
--name=\${ETCD_NAME} \
--data-dir=\${ETCD_DATA_DIR} \
--listen-peer-urls=\${ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS} \
--listen-client-urls=\${ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS},http://127.0.0.1:2379 \
--advertise-client-urls=\${ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS} \
--initial-advertise-peer-urls=\${ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS} \
--initial-cluster=\${ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER} \
--initial-cluster-token=\${ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN} \
--initial-cluster-state=new \
--cert-file=${WORK_DIR}/ssl/server.pem \
--key-file=${WORK_DIR}/ssl/server-key.pem \
--peer-cert-file=${WORK_DIR}/ssl/server.pem \
--peer-key-file=${WORK_DIR}/ssl/server-key.pem \
--trusted-ca-file=${WORK_DIR}/ssl/ca.pem \
--peer-trusted-ca-file=${WORK_DIR}/ssl/ca.pem
Restart=on-failure
LimitNOFILE=65536

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable etcd
systemctl restart etcd


执行脚本

chmod +x etcd.sh
./etcd.sh etcd01 192.168.0.141 etcd02=https://192.168.0.142:2380,etcd03=https://192.168.0.143:2380

## etcd01代表节点名,跟IP,后面代表其他节点的IP
## 端口在上面生成脚本配置
    ## 2380端口:集群通信端口
    ## 2379端口:数据端口


发送etcd目录中另两个节点中

scp -r /usr/local/etcd/ root@192.168.0.143:/usr/local/
scp -r /usr/local/etcd/ root@192.168.0.142:/usr/local/
scp /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service root@192.168.0.142:/usr/lib/systemd/system/
scp /usr/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service root@192.168.0.143:/usr/lib/systemd/system/


启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable etcd
systemctl start etcd


查看日志

tail -100f /var/log/messages
##会发现日志一直在输出找不到另外二个节点,剩下的就把另外二个节点启动就行了



192.168.0.142机上操作

修改etcd配置文件

vim /usr/local/etcd/conf/etcd

#[Member]
ETCD_NAME="etcd02"
ETCD_DATA_DIR="/var/lib/etcd/default.etcd"
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.0.142:2380"
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.0.142:2379"

#[Clustering]
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.0.142:2380"
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.0.142:2379"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER="etcd01=https://192.168.0.141:2380,etcd02=https://192.168.0.142:2380,etcd03=https://192.168.0.143:2380"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN="etcd-cluster"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE="new"

##除了最后第三行,把节点名跟IP修改成当前节点中IP,最后第三行的不用修改,是用于配置集群


启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable etcd
systemctl start etcd


查看日志

tail -100f /var/log/messages
##会发现日志一直在输出找不到另外二个节点,剩下的就把另外二个节点启动就行了



192.168.0.143机上操作

修改etcd配置文件

vim /usr/local/etcd/conf/etcd

#[Member]
ETCD_NAME="etcd03"
ETCD_DATA_DIR="/var/lib/etcd/default.etcd"
ETCD_LISTEN_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.0.143:2380"
ETCD_LISTEN_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.0.143:2379"

#[Clustering]
ETCD_INITIAL_ADVERTISE_PEER_URLS="https://192.168.0.143:2380"
ETCD_ADVERTISE_CLIENT_URLS="https://192.168.0.143:2379"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER="etcd01=https://192.168.0.141:2380,etcd02=https://192.168.0.142:2380,etcd03=https://192.168.0.143:2380"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_TOKEN="etcd-cluster"
ETCD_INITIAL_CLUSTER_STATE="new"

##除了最后第三行,把节点名跟IP修改成当前节点中IP,最后第三行的不用修改,是用于配置集群


启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable etcd
systemctl start etcd


查看日志

tail -100f /var/log/messages
##会发现日志一直在输出找不到另外二个节点,剩下的就把另外二个节点启动就行了


检测集群是否完整

/usr/local/etcd/bin/etcdctl --ca-file=/usr/local/etcd/ssl/ca.pem --cert-file=/usr/local/etcd/ssl/server.pem --key-file=/usr/local/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem --endpoints="https://192.168.0.141:2379,https://192.168.0.142,https://192.168.0.13:2379" cluster-health


结果:
member 4744090d32d62b14 is healthy: got healthy result from https://192.168.0.142:2379
member cad5c53fd12ea4d7 is healthy: got healthy result from https://192.168.0.143:2379
member ff44f0163fd2a515 is healthy: got healthy result from https://192.168.0.141:2379
cluster is healthy


错误总结

遇到过一个错误,启动一个节点,主节点一直报该节点证书错误,到最后发现是服务器时间不对,把时间修改回来就可以了



Node安装Docker

在node节点中安装docker


k8s整体分层图

Ju0i1s.png


node节点

  1. 192.168.0.142
  2. 192.168.0.143


安装docker

以下的步骤请在node的所有节点上操作


安装依赖包

yum install -y yum-utils device-mapper-persistent-data lvm2


配置docker的yum源

需要配置docker官方的yum源来保证拉取的是官方最新的安装包

yum-config-manager --add-repo https://download.docker.com/linux/centos/docker-ce.repo


安装docker

yum -y install docker-ce


安装daoclou加速器

网址:www.daocloud.io/mirror

curl -sSL https://get.daocloud.io/daotools/set_mirror.sh | sh -s http://f1361db2.m.daocloud.io

##如果报错,很有可能是本机的时间不同步当前时间,安装的,是在/etc/docker/daemon.json文件中,这个文件是docker默认读取的文件


启动docker

systemctl start docker



部署Kubernetes网络


Kubernetes网络模型(CNI)

  1. Container Network Interface(CNI):

    1. 容器网络接口,Google和CoreOS主导。
  2. Kubernetes网络模型设计基本要求:

    1. 一个Pod一个IP
    2. 每个Pod独立IP,Pod内所有容器共享网络(同一个IP)
    3. 所有容器都可以与所有其他容器通信
    4. 所有节点都可以与所有容器通信


Kubernetes网络模型的实现

主要是由以下几种技术实现

Ju0w3d.png

一般企业中常用的就是Flannel跟Calico以及contiv


Flannel网络插件 - (百台下网络方案)

  1. Flannel是CoreOS团队针对Kubernetes设计的一个网络规划服务,简单来说,它的功能是让集群中的不同节点主机创建的Docker容器都具有全集群唯一的虚拟IP地址。
  2. 在默认的Docker配置中,每个节点上的Docker服务会分别负责所在节点容器的IP分配。这样导致的一个问题是,不同节点上容器可能获得相同的内外IP地址。并使这些容器之间能够之间通过IP地址相互找到,也就是相互ping通。
  3. Flannel的设计目的就是为集群中的所有节点重新规划IP地址的使用规则,从而使得不同节点上的容器能够获得“同属一个内网”且”不重复的”IP地址,并让属于不同节点上的容器能够直接通过内网IP通信。
  4. Flannel实质上是一种“覆盖网络(overlaynetwork)”,也就是将TCP数据包装在另一种网络包里面进行路由转发和通信,目前已经支持udp、vxlan、host-gw、aws-vpc、gce和alloc路由等数据转发方式,默认的节点间数据通信方式是UDP转发

Ju0sDP.png


Calico网络插件 - (上百台网络方案)

  1. Calico是一个纯3层的数据中心网络方案,而且无缝集成像OpenStack这种IaaS云架构,能够提供可控的VM、容器、裸机之间的IP通信。Calico不使用重叠网络比如flannel和libnetwork重叠网络驱动,它是一个纯三层的方法,使用虚拟路由代替虚拟交换,每一台虚拟路由通过BGP协议传播可达信息(路由)到剩余数据中心。
  2. Calico在每一个计算节点利用Linux Kernel实现了一个高效的vRouter来负责数据转发,而每个vRouter通过BGP协议负责把自己上运行的workload的路由信息像整个Calico网络内传播——小规模部署可以直接互联,大规模下可通过指定的BGP route reflector来完成。
  3. Calico节点组网可以直接利用数据中心的网络结构(无论是L2或者L3),不需要额外的NAT,隧道或者Overlay Network。
  4. Calico基于iptables还提供了丰富而灵活的网络Policy,保证通过各个节点上的ACLs来提供Workload的多租户隔离、安全组以及其他可达性限制等功能。

Ju04vn.png


部署Kubernetes网络-Flannel

这里网络模型选择的是Flannel模型,因Flannel使用起来相比Calico简单中,但是Flannel一般用于集群机器百台内的网络模型,超过百台建议使用Calico

Flannel也是官方推荐的网络模型

Overlay Network:覆盖网络,在基础网络上叠加的一种虚拟网络技术模式,该网络中的主机通过虚拟链路连接起来。
Flannel:是Overlay网络的一种,也是将源数据包封装在另一种网络包里面进行路由转发和通信,目前已经支持UDP、VXLANHost-GW、AWS VPC和GCE路由等数据转发方式。


创建一个子网写到etcd中

/usr/local/etcd/bin/etcdctl --ca-file=/usr/local/etcd/ssl/ca.pem --cert-file=/usr/local/etcd/ssl/server.pem --key-file=/usr/local/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem --endpoints="https://192.168.0.141:2379,https://192.168.0.142:2379,https://192.168.0.143:2379" set /coreos.com/network/config '{ "Network": "172.17.0.0/16", "Backend": {"Type": "vxlan"}}'

## set 创建一个子网
    ## Network:分配给docker的网段
    ## Backend:使用flannel网络模式中那个数据转发方式
        ## 全局域网通信建议使用:Host-GW
        ## 多网络通信建议使用:VXLAN


查看子网有没有生成

/usr/local/etcd/bin/etcdctl --ca-file=/usr/local/etcd/ssh/ca.pem --cert-file=/usr/local/etcd/ssh/server.pem --key-file=/usr/local/etcd/ssh/server-key.pem --endpoints="https://192.168.0.141:2379,https://192.168.0.142:2379,https://192.168.0.143:2379" get /coreos.com/network/config

结果:
{ "Network": "172.17.0.0/16", "Backend": {"Type": "vxlan"}}


下载flannel二进制包

https://github.com/coreos/flannel/releases

  1. 在master节点也是可以部署flannel网络的,不过是可选的
  2. 需要在node节点上部署:

    1. 192.168.0.142
    2. 192.168.0.143



192.168.0.142机上操作

进入目录并解压并进入

mkdir /k8s
cd /k8s/
tar -zxf flannel-v0.10.0-linux-amd64.tar.gz


创建目录

mkdir -p /usr/local/kubernetes/{bin,conf,ssl}


复制文件到kubernetes的bin目录中

cp flanneld mk-docker-opts.sh /usr/local/kubernetes/bin/


编写部署脚本

vim flanneld.sh

#!/bin/bash

ETCD_ENDPOINTS=${1:-"http://127.0.0.1:2379"}

cat <<EOF >/usr/local/kubernetes/conf/flanneld

FLANNEL_OPTIONS="--etcd-endpoints=${ETCD_ENDPOINTS} \
-etcd-cafile=/usr/local/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \
-etcd-certfile=/usr/local/etcd/ssl/server.pem \
-etcd-keyfile=/usr/local/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem"

EOF

cat <<EOF >/usr/lib/systemd/system/flanneld.service
[Unit]
Description=Flanneld overlay address etcd agent
After=network-online.target network.target
Before=docker.service

[Service]
Type=notify
EnvironmentFile=/usr/local/kubernetes/conf/flanneld
ExecStart=/usr/local/kubernetes/bin/flanneld --ip-masq \$FLANNEL_OPTIONS
ExecStartPost=/usr/local/kubernetes/bin/mk-docker-opts.sh -k DOCKER_NETWORK_OPTIONS -d /run/flannel/subnet.env
Restart=on-failure

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

EOF

cat <<EOF >/usr/lib/systemd/system/docker.service

[Unit]
Description=Docker Application Container Engine
Documentation=https://docs.docker.com
After=network-online.target firewalld.service
Wants=network-online.target

[Service]
Type=notify
EnvironmentFile=/run/flannel/subnet.env
ExecStart=/usr/bin/dockerd \$DOCKER_NETWORK_OPTIONS
ExecReload=/bin/kill -s HUP \$MAINPID
LimitNOFILE=infinity
LimitNPROC=infinity
LimitCORE=infinity
TimeoutStartSec=0
Delegate=yes
KillMode=process
Restart=on-failure
StartLimitBurst=3
StartLimitInterval=60s

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

EOF

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable flanneld
systemctl restart flanneld
systemctl restart docker
    
    
## /run/flannel/:这个目录存放着刚才创建的子网相关文件


执行脚本

chmod +x flanneld.sh
./flanneld.sh https://192.168.0.141:2379,https://192.168.0.142:2379,https://192.168.0.143:2379

##执行脚本时要带有etcd集群的IP


执行脚本后会生成三个配置文件

cat /usr/local/kubernetes/conf/flanneld

FLANNEL_OPTIONS="--etcd-endpoints=https://192.168.0.141:2379,https://192.168.0.142:2379,https://192.168.0.143:2379 -etcd-cafile=/usr/local/etcd/ssl/ca.pem -etcd-certfile=/usr/local/etcd/ssl/server.pem -etcd-keyfile=/usr/local/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem"


====================================================================


cat /usr/lib/systemd/system/flanneld.service

[Unit]
Description=Flanneld overlay address etcd agent
After=network-online.target network.target
Before=docker.service

[Service]
Type=notify
EnvironmentFile=/usr/local/kubernetes/conf/flanneld
ExecStart=/usr/local/kubernetes/bin/flanneld --ip-masq $FLANNEL_OPTIONS
ExecStartPost=/usr/local/kubernetes/bin/mk-docker-opts.sh -k DOCKER_NETWORK_OPTIONS -d /run/flannel/subnet.env
Restart=on-failure

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target


====================================================================


cat /usr/lib/systemd/system/docker.service

[Unit]
Description=Docker Application Container Engine
Documentation=https://docs.docker.com
After=network-online.target firewalld.service
Wants=network-online.target

[Service]
Type=notify
EnvironmentFile=/run/flannel/subnet.env
ExecStart=/usr/bin/dockerd $DOCKER_NETWORK_OPTIONS
ExecReload=/bin/kill -s HUP $MAINPID
LimitNOFILE=infinity
LimitNPROC=infinity
LimitCORE=infinity
TimeoutStartSec=0
Delegate=yes
KillMode=process
Restart=on-failure
StartLimitBurst=3
StartLimitInterval=60s

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target


启动flanneld网络

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable flanneld
systemctl start flanneld
systemctl restart docker


查看docker是否是用flanneld网络

ifconfig

docker0: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 172.17.56.1  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 172.17.56.255
        ether 02:42:15:ef:ba:64  txqueuelen 0  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

flannel.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1450
        inet 172.17.56.0  netmask 255.255.255.255  broadcast 0.0.0.0
        inet6 fe80::9ce8:8eff:fe50:a1b7  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20
        ether 9e:e8:8e:50:a1:b7  txqueuelen 0  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 7 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

##docker0的网卡跟flannel.1的网卡是在同一网段上,就证明docker使用了flanneld网络


发送flannel到另一个node中

scp -r /usr/local/kubernetes/ root@192.168.0.143:/usr/local/
scp /usr/lib/systemd/system/{docker,flanneld}.service root@192.168.0.143:/usr/lib/systemd/system/



192.168.0.143机上操作

在192.168.0.143上直接启动不用修改配置


启动flanneld网络

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable flanneld
systemctl start flanneld
systemctl restart docker


查看docker是否是用flanneld网络

ifconfig

docker0: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 172.17.10.1  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 172.17.10.255
        ether 02:42:c2:c3:04:f9  txqueuelen 0  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

flannel.1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1450
        inet 172.17.10.0  netmask 255.255.255.255  broadcast 0.0.0.0
        inet6 fe80::9c52:51ff:feb0:21e9  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20
        ether 9e:52:51:b0:21:e9  txqueuelen 0  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 0  bytes 0 (0.0 B)
        TX errors 0  dropped 7 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

##docker0的网卡跟flannel.1的网卡是在同一网段上,就证明docker使用了flanneld网络


测试node节点的容器是否相通

在二个node节点都创建一个容器,并相互ping一下

docker container run -it busybox
##在node节点的机器上使用

ifconfig
##查看容器中的IP

ping 容器IP
##查看到的IP在另的node节点的容器测试一下是否相通



部署Master组件

在部署Kubernetes之前一定要确保etcd、flannel、docker是正常工作的,否则先解决问题再继

需要部署三个组件

  1. kube-apiserver
  2. kube-controller-manager
  3. kube-scheduler

下载二进制包:https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes/blob/master/CHANGELOG-1.12.md 下载这个包(kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz)就够了,包含了所需的所有组件。


kube-apiserver组件的部署


进入目录并解压并进入

cd /k8s/soft
tar -zxf kubernetes-server-linux-amd64.tar.gz
cd kubernetes


创建目录

mkdir -p /usr/local/kubernetes/{bin,conf,ssl,logs}


复制文件到kubernetes的bin目录中

cd server/bin/
cp kube-apiserver kube-controller-manager kubectl kube-scheduler /usr/local/kubernetes/bin/
ln -s /usr/local/kubernetes/bin/kubectl /usr/bin/


编写部署脚本

vim apiserver.sh

#!/bin/bash

MASTER_ADDRESS=$1
ETCD_SERVERS=$2

cat <<EOF >/usr/local/kubernetes/conf/kube-apiserver

KUBE_APISERVER_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--log-dir=/usr/local/kubernetes/logs \\
--v=4 \\
--etcd-servers=${ETCD_SERVERS} \\
--bind-address=${MASTER_ADDRESS} \\
--secure-port=6443 \\
--advertise-address=${MASTER_ADDRESS} \\
--allow-privileged=true \\
--service-cluster-ip-range=10.0.0.0/24 \\
--service-node-port-range=30000-50000 \\
--enable-admission-plugins=NamespaceLifecycle,LimitRanger,ServiceAccount,ResourceQuota,NodeRestriction \\
--authorization-mode=RBAC,Node \\
--kubelet-https=true \\
--enable-bootstrap-token-auth \\
--token-auth-file=/usr/local/kubernetes/conf/token.csv \\
--tls-cert-file=/usr/local/kubernetes/ssl/server.pem  \\
--tls-private-key-file=/usr/local/kubernetes/ssl/server-key.pem \\
--client-ca-file=/usr/local/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
--service-account-key-file=/usr/local/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem \\
--etcd-cafile=/usr/local/etcd/ssl/ca.pem \\
--etcd-certfile=/usr/local/etcd/ssl/server.pem \\
--etcd-keyfile=/usr/local/etcd/ssl/server-key.pem"

EOF

cat <<EOF >/usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-apiserver.service
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes API Server
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes

[Service]
EnvironmentFile=-/usr/local/kubernetes/conf/kube-apiserver
ExecStart=/usr/local/kubernetes/bin/kube-apiserver \$KUBE_APISERVER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable kube-apiserver
systemctl restart kube-apiserver


执行脚本

chmod +x apiserver.sh 
./apiserver.sh 192.168.0.141 https://192.168.0.141:2379,https://192.168.0.142:2379,https://192.168.0.143:2379


复制证书到kubernetes的ssh目录中

cd /k8s/cert/k8s-cert/
cp ca.pem ca-key.pem server.pem server-key.pem /usr/local/kubernetes/ssl/


生成token.csv验证文件

head -c 16 /dev/urandom | od -An -t x | tr -d ' '
##生成密钥

echo '0fb61c46f8991b718eb38d27b605b008,kubelet-bootstrap,10001,"system:kubelet-bootstrap"' > /usr/local/kubernetes/conf/token.csv
    
# 0fb61c46f8991b718eb38d27b605b008:密钥
# kubelet-bootstrap:用户
# 10001:用户组
# system:kubelet-bootstrap:加入k8s集群


启动kube-apiserver

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable kube-apiserver
systemctl start kube-apiserver

端口:8080,6443



Kube-controller-manager组件的部署


编写部署脚本

cd /k8s/soft/kubernetes/server/bin/
vim controller-manager.sh

#!/bin/bash

MASTER_ADDRESS=$1

cat <<EOF >/usr/local/kubernetes/conf/kube-controller-manager


KUBE_CONTROLLER_MANAGER_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--log-dir=/usr/local/kubernetes/logs \\
--v=4 \\
--master=${MASTER_ADDRESS}:8080 \\
--leader-elect=true \\
--address=127.0.0.1 \\
--service-cluster-ip-range=10.0.0.0/24 \\
--cluster-name=kubernetes \\
--cluster-signing-cert-file=/usr/local/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
--cluster-signing-key-file=/usr/local/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem  \\
--root-ca-file=/usr/local/kubernetes/ssl/ca.pem \\
--service-account-private-key-file=/usr/local/kubernetes/ssl/ca-key.pem \\
--experimental-cluster-signing-duration=87600h0m0s"

EOF

cat <<EOF >/usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-controller-manager.service
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Controller Manager
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes

[Service]
EnvironmentFile=-/usr/local/kubernetes/conf/kube-controller-manager
ExecStart=/usr/local/kubernetes/bin/kube-controller-manager \$KUBE_CONTROLLER_MANAGER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable kube-controller-manager
systemctl restart kube-controller-manager


执行脚本

chmod +x controller-manager.sh
./controller-manager.sh 127.0.0.1

## 启动需要绑定apiserver的8080端口,所以要确定apiserver启动起来后才能启动controller-manager


启动Kube-controller-manager

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable kube-controller-manager
systemctl start kube-controller-manager



kube-scheduler组件的部署


编写部署脚本

cd /k8s/soft/kubernetes/server/bin/
vim scheduler.sh

#!/bin/bash

MASTER_ADDRESS=$1

cat <<EOF >/usr/local/kubernetes/conf/kube-scheduler

KUBE_SCHEDULER_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--log-dir=/usr/local/kubernetes/logs \\
--v=4 \\
--master=${MASTER_ADDRESS}:8080 \\
--leader-elect"

EOF

cat <<EOF >/usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-scheduler.service
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Scheduler
Documentation=https://github.com/kubernetes/kubernetes

[Service]
EnvironmentFile=-/usr/local/kubernetes/conf/kube-scheduler
ExecStart=/usr/local/kubernetes/bin/kube-scheduler \$KUBE_SCHEDULER_OPTS
Restart=on-failure

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable kube-scheduler
systemctl restart kube-scheduler


执行脚本

chmod +x scheduler.sh
./scheduler.sh 127.0.0.1

## 启动需要绑定apiserver的8080端口,所以要确定apiserver启动起来后才能启动controller-manager


启动kube-scheduler

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable kube-scheduler
systemctl start kube-scheduler


查看当前集群节点的状态

kubectl get cs

NAME                 STATUS    MESSAGE             ERROR
controller-manager   Healthy   ok                  
scheduler            Healthy   ok                  
etcd-0               Healthy   {"health":"true"}   
etcd-2               Healthy   {"health":"true"}   
etcd-1               Healthy   {"health":"true"}



部署Node组件

JMxvhq.png


需要部署二个组件

  1. kubelet
  2. kube-proxy



以下操作是在Master节点上操作

绑定到系统集群角色

将kubelet-bootstrap用户绑定到系统集群角色

kubectl create clusterrolebinding kubelet-bootstrap --clusterrole=system:node-bootstrapper --user=kubelet-bootstrap

## 为上面生成的token.csv验证文件中的用户绑定到集群角色中


编写生成kubeconfig文件的脚本

cd /k8s/soft/kubernetes/server/bin/
vim kubeconfig.sh

#!/bin/bash
APISERVER=$1
SSL_DIR=$2
BOOTSTRAP_TOKEN=cd38b57ef30a4f4009fde99e9603dcb8

# 创建kubelet bootstrapping kubeconfig 
export KUBE_APISERVER="https://$APISERVER:6443"

# 设置集群参数
kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  --certificate-authority=$SSL_DIR/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig

# 设置客户端认证参数
kubectl config set-credentials kubelet-bootstrap \
  --token=${BOOTSTRAP_TOKEN} \
  --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig

# 设置上下文参数
kubectl config set-context default \
  --cluster=kubernetes \
  --user=kubelet-bootstrap \
  --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig

# 设置默认上下文
kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig

#----------------------

# 创建kube-proxy kubeconfig文件

kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
  --certificate-authority=$SSL_DIR/ca.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --server=${KUBE_APISERVER} \
  --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig

kubectl config set-credentials kube-proxy \
  --client-certificate=$SSL_DIR/kube-proxy.pem \
  --client-key=$SSL_DIR/kube-proxy-key.pem \
  --embed-certs=true \
  --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig

kubectl config set-context default \
  --cluster=kubernetes \
  --user=kube-proxy \
  --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig

kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig


##注意:BOOTSTRAP_TOKEN这个变量是存放刚刚生成token.csv验证文件中的密钥
##这文件存放了验证apisever的验证信息,这样其它组件才有权限访问apiserve


执行脚本

chmod +x kubeconfig.sh 
./kubeconfig.sh 192.168.0.141 /k8s/cert/k8s-cert/

## 第一位参数:为master节点的IP
## 第二位参数:生成k8s证书的目录


拷贝生文件到node节点上

cd /k8s/cert/k8s-cert
scp bootstrap.kubeconfig kube-proxy.kubeconfig root@192.168.0.142:/usr/local/kubernetes/conf/
scp bootstrap.kubeconfig kube-proxy.kubeconfig root@192.168.0.143:/usr/local/kubernetes/conf/

cd /k8s/soft/kubernetes/server/bin
scp kubelet kube-proxy root@192.168.0.142:/usr/local/kubernetes/bin/
scp kubelet kube-proxy root@192.168.0.143:/usr/local/kubernetes/bin/



以下操作在node节点192.168.0.142操作


部署kubelet


创建目录

mkdir -p /usr/local/kubernetes/{bin,conf,ssl,logs}


编写部署脚本

cd /k8s
vim kubelet.sh

#!/bin/bash

NODE_ADDRESS=$1
DNS_SERVER_IP=${2:-"10.0.0.2"}

cat <<EOF >/usr/local/kubernetes/conf/kubelet

KUBELET_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--log-dir=/usr/local/kubernetes/logs \\
--v=4 \\
--hostname-override=${NODE_ADDRESS} \\
--kubeconfig=/usr/local/kubernetes/conf/kubelet.kubeconfig \\
--bootstrap-kubeconfig=/usr/local/kubernetes/conf/bootstrap.kubeconfig \\
--config=/usr/local/kubernetes/conf/kubelet.config \\
--cert-dir=//usr/local/kubernetes/ssl \\
--pod-infra-container-image=registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/google-containers/pause-amd64:3.0"

EOF

cat <<EOF >/usr/local/kubernetes/conf/kubelet.config

kind: KubeletConfiguration
apiVersion: kubelet.config.k8s.io/v1beta1
address: ${NODE_ADDRESS}
port: 10250
readOnlyPort: 10255
cgroupDriver: cgroupfs
clusterDNS:
- ${DNS_SERVER_IP} 
clusterDomain: cluster.local.
failSwapOn: false
authentication:
  anonymous:
    enabled: true
EOF

cat <<EOF >/usr/lib/systemd/system/kubelet.service
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Kubelet
After=docker.service
Requires=docker.service

[Service]
EnvironmentFile=/usr/local/kubernetes/conf/kubelet
ExecStart=/usr/local/kubernetes/bin/kubelet \$KUBELET_OPTS
Restart=on-failure
KillMode=process

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable kubelet
systemctl restart kubelet


执行脚本

chmod +x kubelet.sh
./kubelet.sh 192.168.0.142

##当前node节点的IP


启动kubelet

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable kubelet
systemctl start kubelet


节点授权

到Master节点给node192.168.0.142节点授权

kubectl get csr
结果:
NAME                                                   AGE   REQUESTOR           CONDITION
node-csr-In6C6aeHhDjMbourTBOFiWvji-ROo7njqhlDBKUeJl8   28h   kubelet-bootstrap   Pending
##查看密钥值


kubectl certificate approve node-csr-In6C6aeHhDjMbourTBOFiWvji-ROo7njqhlDBKUeJl8
结果:
certificatesigningrequest.certificates.k8s.io/node-csr-In6C6aeHhDjMbourTBOFiWvji-ROo7njqhlDBKUeJl8 approved
##通过命令给密钥值加权


kubectl get node
结果:
NAME            STATUS   ROLES    AGE    VERSION
192.168.0.142   Ready    <none>   110m   v1.13.4
##查看Node节点


部署kube-proxy组件


编写部署脚本

cd /k8s
vim proxy.sh

#!/bin/bash

NODE_ADDRESS=$1

cat <<EOF >/usr/local/kubernetes/conf/kube-proxy

KUBE_PROXY_OPTS="--logtostderr=false \\
--log-dir=/usr/local/kubernetes/logs \\
--v=4 \\
--hostname-override=${NODE_ADDRESS} \\
--cluster-cidr=10.0.0.0/24 \\
--proxy-mode=ipvs \\
--kubeconfig=/usr/local/kubernetes/conf/kube-proxy.kubeconfig"

EOF

cat <<EOF >/usr/lib/systemd/system/kube-proxy.service
[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Proxy
After=network.target

[Service]
EnvironmentFile=-/usr/local/kubernetes/conf/kube-proxy
ExecStart=/usr/local/kubernetes/bin/kube-proxy \$KUBE_PROXY_OPTS
Restart=on-failure

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target
EOF

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable kube-proxy
systemctl restart kube-proxy


执行脚本

chmod +x proxy.sh
./proxy.sh 192.168.0.142

##当前node节点的IP


启动proxy

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable kube-proxy
systemctl start kube-proxy


发送配置文件目录到另一个Node节点上

scp -r /usr/local/kubernetes/ root@192.168.0.143:/usr/local/
cd /usr/lib/systemd/system/
scp kubelet.service kube-proxy.service root@192.168.0.143:/usr/lib/systemd/system/



以下操作在node节点192.168.0.143上操作


删除证书

rm -rf /usr/local/kubernetes/ssl/*


修改配置文件

cd /usr/local/kubernetes/conf

需要修改的配置文件有以下几个
kubelet
kubelet.config
kube-proxy

##将这些配置文件中的192.168.0.142换成192.168.0.143


启动

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable kubelet
systemctl start kubelet
systemctl enable kube-proxy
systemctl start kube-proxy


节点授权

到Master节点给node192.168.0.143节点授权

kubectl get csr
结果:
NAME                                                   AGE   REQUESTOR           CONDITION
node-csr-In6C6aeHhDjMbourTBOFiWvji-ROo7njqhlDBKUeJl8   28h   kubelet-bootstrap   Approved,Issued
node-csr-bv__TEcpxKxCGUULU-5ElHHwgTXRPdxrI7zy8nxPmog   39s   kubelet-bootstrap   Pending
##查看密钥值,其中有一个值是192.168.0.142的


kubectl certificate approve node-csr-bv__TEcpxKxCGUULU-5ElHHwgTXRPdxrI7zy8nxPmog
结果:
certificatesigningrequest.certificates.k8s.io/node-csr-bv__TEcpxKxCGUULU-5ElHHwgTXRPdxrI7zy8nxPmog approved
##通过命令给密钥值加权


kubectl get node
结果:
NAME            STATUS   ROLES    AGE    VERSION
192.168.0.142   Ready    <none>   110m   v1.13.4
192.168.0.143   Ready    <none>   17s    v1.13.4
##查看Node节点



部署一个测试示例

创建一个nginx的服务容器

kubectl create deployment nginx --image=nginx


查看创建的服务容器

kubectl get pods

NAME                   READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
nginx-5c7588df-45gzq   1/1     Running   0          6m45s

## 第一次启动Nginx, 可能会慢点,因为系统需要拉镜像
## 1/1:启动成功
## 0/1:启动中


扩容nginx服务容器

kubectl scale deployment nginx --replicas=3
## 指定nginx容器数量为三个


在查看创建的服务容器

kubectl get pods

NAME                   READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
nginx-5c7588df-45gzq   1/1     Running   0          6m45s
nginx-5c7588df-56gwb   1/1     Running   0          3m11s
nginx-5c7588df-hvjlf   1/1     Running   0          3m11s


查看容器分布在那些节点上

kubectl get pods -o wide

NAME                   READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE     IP            NODE            NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
nginx-5c7588df-45gzq   1/1     Running   0          6m59s   172.17.71.2   192.168.0.142   <none>           <none>
nginx-5c7588df-56gwb   1/1     Running   0          3m25s   172.17.71.3   192.168.0.142   <none>           <none>
nginx-5c7588df-hvjlf   1/1     Running   0          3m25s   172.17.82.2   192.168.0.143   <none>           <none>            


暴露node88端口给外部连接

kubectl expose deployment nginx --port=88 --target-port=80 --type=NodePort

## 暴露的端口是内部连接的,外部连接是暴露的随机端口


查看以暴露的端口并访问

kubectl get svc

NAME         TYPE        CLUSTER-IP   EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)        AGE
kubernetes   ClusterIP   10.0.0.1     <none>        443/TCP        4h45m
nginx        NodePort    10.0.0.175   <none>        88:32707/TCP   23s

##访问随意node节点IP加随机端口(46771)


web访问

# 可以通过二个node节点的IP加上32707端口
# 192.168.0.142:32707
# 192.168.0.143:32707


授权用户可以查看日志的权限

kubectl create clusterrolebinding cluster-system-anonymous --clusterrole=cluster-admin --user=system:anonymous


查看创建的服务容器并查看日志

kubectl get pods

NAME                   READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
nginx-5c7588df-45gzq   1/1     Running   0          6m45s
nginx-5c7588df-56gwb   1/1     Running   0          3m11s
nginx-5c7588df-hvjlf   1/1     Running   0          3m11s

===================================================================

kubectl logs nginx-5c7588df-hvjlf

172.17.71.0 - - [20/Apr/2020:07:47:26 +0000] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 200 612 "-" "curl/7.29.0" "-"
172.17.71.0 - - [20/Apr/2020:07:47:52 +0000] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 200 612 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/76.0.3809.100 Safari/537.36" "-"
2020/04/20 07:47:52 [error] 6#6: *2 open() "/usr/share/nginx/html/favicon.ico" failed (2: No such file or directory), client: 172.17.71.0, server: localhost, request: "GET /favicon.ico HTTP/1.1", host: "192.168.0.142:32707", referrer: "http://192.168.0.142:32707/"
172.17.71.0 - - [20/Apr/2020:07:47:52 +0000] "GET /favicon.ico HTTP/1.1" 404 556 "http://192.168.0.142:32707/" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/76.0.3809.100 Safari/537.36" "-"
172.17.82.1 - - [20/Apr/2020:07:47:56 +0000] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 200 612 "-" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/76.0.3809.100 Safari/537.36" "-"
172.17.82.1 - - [20/Apr/2020:07:47:56 +0000] "GET /favicon.ico HTTP/1.1" 404 556 "http://192.168.0.143:32707/" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/76.0.3809.100 Safari/537.36" "-"
2020/04/20 07:47:56 [error] 6#6: *3 open() "/usr/share/nginx/html/favicon.ico" failed (2: No such file or directory), client: 172.17.82.1, server: localhost, request: "GET /favicon.ico HTTP/1.1", host: "192.168.0.143:32707", referrer: "http://192.168.0.143:32707/"



高可用负载kubemetes集群

基于上面的kubemetes集群,在添加二台机器

  1. 192.168.0.41

    1. 新的maste节点

      1. 4G,2P
  2. 192.168.0.42

    1. nginx节点跟keepalived节点

      1. 2G,1P
  3. 192.168.0.43

    1. nginx节点跟keepalived节点

      1. 2G,1P



新建maste节点


获取旧maste节点的数据

请到192.168.0.141机器上执行

scp -r /usr/local/etcd/ssl/ root@192.168.0.41:/usr/local/etcd/ssl/
scp -r /usr/local/kubernetes/ root@192.168.0.41:/usr/local/
scp /usr/lib/systemd/system/{kube-apiserver,kube-controller-manager,kube-scheduler}.service root@192.168.0.41:/usr/lib/systemd/system


创建kubectl命令文件软链接

ln -s /usr/local/kubernetes/bin/kubectl /usr/bin/


### 修改kube-apiserver的配置

vim /usr/local/kubernetes/conf/kube-apiserver
--bind-address=192.168.0.41 \
--advertise-address=192.168.0.41 \

## 把这二行的IP修改为当前新节点的IP


启动新节点的三个组件

systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable kube-apiserver
systemctl enable kube-controller-manager
systemctl enable kube-scheduler
systemctl start kube-apiserver
systemctl start kube-controller-manager
systemctl start kube-scheduler

## 先启动kube-apiserver,要保证kube-apiserver启动后才能启动其他二个节点,因为其他二个节点都是依赖kube-apiserver的8080端口


查看当前集群节点的状态

kubectl get cs

NAME                 STATUS    MESSAGE             ERROR
controller-manager   Healthy   ok                  
scheduler            Healthy   ok                  
etcd-1               Healthy   {"health":"true"}   
etcd-0               Healthy   {"health":"true"}   
etcd-2               Healthy   {"health":"true"}


查看运行的容器

kubectl get pods

NAME                   READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
nginx-5c7588df-45gzq   1/1     Running   0          156m
nginx-5c7588df-56gwb   1/1     Running   0          153m
nginx-5c7588df-hvjlf   1/1     Running   0          153m



在192.168.0.42搭建nginx跟keepalived


安装nginx跟keepalived

yum -y install nginx keepalived


修改nginx配置

vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

stream {

   log_format  main  '$remote_addr $upstream_addr - [$time_local] $status $upstream_bytes_sent';
    access_log  /var/log/nginx/k8s-access.log  main;

    upstream k8s-apiserver {
        server 192.168.0.141:6443;
        server 192.168.0.41:6443;
    }
    server {
        listen 6443;
        proxy_pass k8s-apiserver;
    }
}

## 在http{}头上添加stream{},stream是基于4层的负载
## access_log:是日志输出 
## server{}:是监听6443端口,如果6443端口有数据就会调用k8s-apiserver模块
## upstream{}:定义负载的模块


启动nginx

systemctl start nginx


创建nginx心跳检测脚本

vim /etc/nginx/check_nginx.sh

#!/bin/bash
count=$(ps -ef |grep nginx |egrep -cv "grep|$$")
if [ "$count" = "0" ];then
    systemctl stop keepalived
fi

## 让keepalived自行调用


增加nginx心跳检测脚本可执行权限

chmod +x /etc/nginx/check_nginx.sh


修改keepalived配置

vim /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf

! Configuration File for keepalived 
 
global_defs { 
   notification_email { 
     acassen@firewall.loc 
     failover@firewall.loc 
     sysadmin@firewall.loc 
   } 
   notification_email_from Alexandre.Cassen@firewall.loc  
   smtp_server 127.0.0.1 
   smtp_connect_timeout 30 
   router_id NGINX_MASTER 
} 

vrrp_script check_nginx {
    script "/etc/nginx/check_nginx.sh"
    interval 1 ## 检测时间间隔
    weight -20 ## 如果条件成立,权重-20
}

vrrp_instance VI_1 {
    state MASTER
    interface eth0  ## 网卡名,一定要跟当前机器的网卡名一致
    virtual_router_id 51 # VRRP 路由 ID实例,每个实例是唯一的
    priority 100    # 优先级,备服务器设置 90
    advert_int 1    # 指定VRRP 心跳包通告间隔时间,默认1秒
    authentication {
        auth_type PASS
        auth_pass 1111
    }
    virtual_ipaddress {
        192.168.0.40/24
    }
    track_script {
        check_nginx
    }
}

## 把文件清空,写入上面的配置


启动keepalived

systemctl start keepalived


查看IP

ip add
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:50:56:39:24:d1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.0.43/24 brd 192.168.0.255 scope global noprefixroute eth0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet 192.168.0.40/24 scope global secondary eth0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::7afa:61f2:9555:6c8e/64 scope link noprefixroute 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever


移动配置文件到192.168.0.43上

scp /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf root@192.168.0.43:/root
scp /etc/nginx/check_nginx.sh root@192.168.0.43:/root



在192.168.0.43搭建nginx跟keepalived


安装nginx跟keepalived

yum -y install nginx keepalived


修改nginx配置

vim /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

stream {

   log_format  main  '$remote_addr $upstream_addr - [$time_local] $status $upstream_bytes_sent';
    access_log  /var/log/nginx/k8s-access.log  main;

    upstream k8s-apiserver {
        server 192.168.0.141:6443;
        server 192.168.0.41:6443;
    }
    server {
        listen 6443;
        proxy_pass k8s-apiserver;
    }
}

## 在http{}头上添加stream{},stream是基于4层的负载
## access_log:是日志输出 
## server{}:是监听6443端口,如果6443端口有数据就会调用k8s-apiserver模块
## upstream{}:定义负载的模块


启动nginx

systemctl start nginx


移动文件

mv /root/check_nginx.sh /etc/nginx/
mv /root/keepalived.conf /etc/keepalived/


增加nginx心跳检测脚本可执行权限

chmod +x /etc/nginx/check_nginx.sh


修改keepalived配置

vim /etc/keepalived/keepalived.conf

state BACKUP
priority 90

## 修改这二项


启动keepalived

systemctl start keepalived


查看IP

ip add
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:50:56:39:24:d1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.0.43/24 brd 192.168.0.255 scope global noprefixroute eth0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet 192.168.0.40/24 scope global secondary eth0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::7afa:61f2:9555:6c8e/64 scope link noprefixroute 
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever


测试

## 可以关闭192.168.0.42的nginx,看看192.168.0.40的VIP会不会移动到192.168.0.43的机器上



配置node集群访问IP

把node节点需要访问maste节点的IP改成上面配置好的虚拟IP

以下操作在二个node节点都要


修改node节点的配置文件

修改有三个文件,bootstrap.kubeconfig,kubelet.kubeconfig,kube-proxy.kubeconfig
## 把这三个文件的IP修改成虚拟IP,端口不用改,这样子node节点访问maste节点就会先经过nginx负载转发


重启服务

systemctl restart kubelet
systemctl restart kube-proxy


故障

注意:在本人实践文章的可行时,报了错,最终找到原因:是因为上面虚拟IP192.168.0.40并没有加入k8s证书中,所以node不认同这个IP

解决方案:如果是按上面的IP来部署的话,可以把nginx跟keepalived节点之一的192.168.0.42修改一下IP,并把192.168.0.42改为虚拟IP,因为在上面k8s认证的时候就只写了三个IP,其中二个都是maste节点,还有一个就是192.168.0.42这个IP

上面k8s证书中的IP:"192.168.0.141","192.168.0.41","192.168.0.42"

如果不是按上面的配置部署,那么查一下还有没有k8s证书中剩余可使用的IP,如果没有就只能重新生成证书并对老证书进行替换

目前博客已在博文中把192.168.0.40这个IP加入证书



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2 条评论

  1. fan
    fan

    有几个地方还是存在点小问题的

  2. fan
    fan

    cat

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